Acronyms & Abbreviations List

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	A	ampere
A	angstrom
A/D	analog to digital
AAIC	active addressing integrated circuit
AAL	ATM adaptation layer
AAL2	ATM adaptation layer 2
ABI	application binary interface
ABT	Advanced BiCMOS Technology logic
ABTE	Advanced BiCMOS Technology/Enhanced logic
ABTH	Advanced BiCMOS Technology logic with Bus-Hold
AC	Advanced CMOS logic
ac	alternating current
ACATS	Advisory Committee on Advanced Television Service (standard)
ACF	auto-correlation function
ACK	acknowledge
ACM	Association for Computing Machinery
ACPI	Advanced Configuration and Power Interface [spec]
ACT	Advanced CMOS logic with TTL-compatible inputs
ADC	analog-to-digital converter
ADDSP	application-specific digital signal processor
ADM	add/drop multiplexers
ADPCM	adaptive differential pulse-code modulation
ADSL	asynchronous/asymmetrical digital-subscriber loop line
AEA	American Electronic Association (Washington, DC)
AEA	American Engineering Association
AEEC	Airline Electronic Engineering Committee (part of ARINC)
AF	audio frequency
AFC	audio-frequency control
AFC	automatic frequency control
AFE	Analog front end
AGC	automatic gain control
AHDL	analog hardware-description language (software)
Ahr	ampere-hour
Ahr	ampere hour
AI	artificial intelligence
AIN	advanced intelligent network (telecommunications)
ALGOL	algorithmic language
ALN	adaptive-logic network (neural)
ALU	arithmetic-logic unit
AM	active matrix (liquid-crystal display)
AM	amplitude modulation
AMLCD	active-matrix liquid-crystal display
AMPS	Advanced Mobile Phone Service (worldwide standard)
AN	Access Network
ANSI	American National Standards Institute (New York)
AP	arithmetic processor
API	application-programming interface
APM	advanced power management
AQL	acceptable quality level
ARIB	Association of Radio Industries and Businesses
ARINC	Aeronautical Radio Inc (airline consortium)
ARM	advanced RISC machine (computer)
ARO	after receipt of order
ARPA	Advanced Research Projects Agency (US government)
ASCII	American National Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASIC	application-specific integrated circuit
ASME	American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASPI	advanced SCSI programming interface
ASR	automatic speech recognition
ASSP	application-specific signal processor
ASTM	American Society for Testing and Materials
At	ampere turn
ATA	ATbus-attachment (mobile version of IDE)
ATAPI	AT Attachment Packet Interface (IDE standard)
ATE	automatic test equipment
ATG	automatic test generation
ATM	asynchronous transfer mode (communications)
ATPG	automatic test-program/pattern generation
ATV	advanced television (high-definition television)
avg	average
AVI	advanced vehicle identification
AVI	Analog VHDL International (standards group)
AWG	American wire gauge (standard)
AWG	arbitrary-waveform generator
B	bel
B-CDMA	broadband code division multiple access (communications)
B8ZS	bipolar eight zero substitution
BALUN	balanced-to-unbalanced
Basic	beginners all-purpose symbolic instruction code (software)
BAW	bulk acoustic wave (HF device)
BBS	bulletin board system (software)
BBT	bit-block transfer
BC	backward compatible (coding)
BCCH	broadcast control channel
BCD	binary-coded decimal
BDD	binary decision diagram
BECN	Backward Explicit Congestion Notification
BEI	back-scattered electron imaging
BER	bit error rate
BERT	bit error rate/ratio test
BFSK	binary frequency-shift keying
BFSL	best-fit straight line (error measurement)
BGA	ball-grid array (packaging)
BiCMOS	bipolar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
BIOS	basic input/output system (computer)
BIP	bit-interleaved parity (communications)
Bit-BLT	bit-block line transfer
BITE	built-in test equipment
BJT	bipolar junction transistor
BLAS	basic linear-algebra subprogram (software)
BLIP	background-limited infrared photodetector
BLT	block transfer
BMC	Baseboard Management Controller
BMP	bit-mapped (graphics file format)
BMU	bit-manipulation unit
BMV	Bundesministerium fur Verkehr (German Ministry of Transportation)
BNC	baby n connector
BOM	Bill of Materials
BOOTP	Bootstrap Protocol (Internet)
BORSCHT	battery-feed, overvoltage, ringing, supervision, coding, hybrid and test
	(functions of all-inclusive telecommunications device
BPF	band-pass filter
BPSK	binary phase-shift keying
BPU	boundary-processing unit
BPV	bipolar violation
BSC	bisynchronous communication
BSDL	boundary-scan description language (software)
BSI	British Standards Institution
BSS	broadcast satellite service (DBS)
BSS	basic service set (communications)
BTU	British thermal unit
BWA	broadband wireless access
C	Celsius
CA	certificate authority
CAC	Connnection address control
CAD	computer-aided design
CAE	computer-aided engineering
CAGR	compound annual growth rate
CAI	Common Air Interface (European)
CAM	content-addressable memory
CAM	computer-aided manufacturing
CAMAC	computer-aided measurement and control
CAP	competitive access provider (vs RBOC)
CART	classification and regression tree (neural network)
CASCADE	Chip Architecture for Smart Cards and (Portable Intelligent) Devices
CASE	computer-aided software engineering
CAT	computer-aided test
CAT	computerized axial tomography (medical diagnostics)
CATV	community antenna TV
CB	complementary bipolar (IC)
CBEMA	Computer & Business Equipment Manufacturers Association
CBGA	ceramic ball-grid array (IC)
CBIC	complementary bipolar integrated circuit
CBR	constant bit rate
CC/VL	constant current, voltage limited (power supply)
CCC	ceramic chip carrier
CCD	charge-coupled device
CCF	cross-correlation function
CCFT	cold-cathode fluorescent tube
CCGA	ceramic column grid array (IC)
CCIR	Consultative Committee, International Radio (see ITU)
CCITT	Consultative Committee on International Telephone and Telegraph
CCN	Center for Civic Networking (on Internet)
CCPCH	Common control physical channel
CCS	common channel signaling (telecommunications)
CCTV	closed-circuit TV
CCW	counterclockwise
CD	collision detection
cd	candela
cd/ft2	candelas per square foot
cd/m2	candelas per square meter
CDF	cumulative distribution function
CDI	compact-disk interactive
CDMA	code division multiple access (digital communications standard)
CDPD	Cellular Digital Packet Data (Consortium standard)
CDRAM	cache dynamic random-access memory
CEG	Consumer Electronics Group (of EIA)
CELP	code-excited linear prediction (speech coding)
CEPS	color electronic prepress system (DTP)
CERMET	ceramic metal (element)
CFAR	constant false-alarm rate (radar)
CFB	configurable function block
CFC	chlorofluorocarbon
CFC	current-to-frequency converter
CFI	CAD Framework Initiative (standard)
cfm	cubic feet/minute
cg	centigram
cgs	centimeter-gram-second
CHINT	charge-injected transistor
CIC	CEBus Industry Consortium
CID	charge-injection device
CiDSL	Consumer-installable DSL
CIE	computer-integrated engineering
CIF	Common Intermediate Format (ITU video standard)
CIIL	Common Instrument/Control Intermediate Interface Language
CIM	computer-integrated manufacturing
CISC	complex-instruction-set computing
CIX	Commercial Internet Exchange (consortium, Falls Church, VA)
CLCC	ceramic leadless chip carrier
CLIW	Customizable long instruction word
CLP	cell-loss priority (network)
cm	centimeter
cm3	cubic centimeter
CMA	ceramic multilayer actuators
CMIP	common management-information protocol
CML	current-mode logic (circuit
CMOS	complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
CMR	common-mode ratio
CMRR	common-mode rejection ratio
CMS	connection-management system (communications)
CMS	customer mobility space (communications)
CMV	common-mode voltage
CMVR	common-mode voltage ratio
CMY	cyan, magenta, yellow (printing colors)
CNC	computerized numerically controlled (machine)
CNR	Communication Network Riser (card)
CO	central office (telecommunications)
COB	chip on board
Cobol	Common Business Oriented Language (software)
COCB	chip-on-chip ball (grid array) (packaging)
codec	coder/decoder (two-way communications)
codec	coder-decoder
COM	Common Object Model (software standard)
COMINT	communications intelligence
CORBA	Common Object Request Broker Architecture (of OMG)
CoS	Class of Service
COSE	Common Open Software/Systems Environment (Unix)
COTS	commercial off the shelf
CP	Customer Premises
CPA	Center for Policy Alternatives (on the Internet)
CPE	Customer premises equipment
CPGA	ceramic pin-grid array (IC)
cpi	characters per inch
CPLD	complex programmable-logic device
cps	characters per second
cps	cycles per second
CPU	central processing unit
CQFP	ceramic quad flatpack (IC)
CRC	cyclic redundancy check
CRT	cathode-ray tube
CSA	Canadian Standards Association
csc	cosecant
CSM	cell-site modem
CSMA/CD	carrier sense multiple access/collision detection (LAN)
CSO	composite second order
CTE	coefficient of thermal expansion
CTIA	Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association
CTIA	Computing Technologies Industry Association
CTS	clear to send
CW	clockwise
CW	continuous wave
DA	distributor/arbitor
D-S	direct synthesis
D/a	digital-to-analog
DAA	data-access arrangement
DAA	Direct Access Arrangement
DAB	data-acquisition board
DAB	digital audio broadcasting
DAC	digital-to-analog converter
DAP	data-acquisition processor
DAQ	data acquisition
DARPA	Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (US government)
DAS	data-acquisition system
DAV	digital audio video
Davic	Digital Audio-Visual Council
dB	decibel
dBm	dB power (acoustics)
dBm	decibel referred to 1 milliwatt
DBMS	database-management system
DBPSK	differential binary phase-shift keying (communications)
DBS	direct-broadcast satellite (TV)
dBV	decibel volts
dBV	decibel referred to 1 volt
dBW	decibel referred to 1 watt
dc	direct current
dc/dc	dc to dc
DCASP	digitally controlled analog-signal processing
DCC	data communications channel
DCE	data-communications equipment
DCE	Distributed Computing Environment (OSF)
DCH	dedicated channel
DCI	display-control interface
DCR	digital direct converson receiver
DCS	digital communications system
DCT	discrete cosine transform
DDC	display data channel (VESA)
DDE	dynamic data exchange (software)
DDI	device-driver interface
DDN NIC	Defense Data Network, Network Information Center (Internet)
DDS	direct digital synthesis
DDTCP	dual tape-carrier package (IC)
DECT	Digital European Cordless Telephone/Telecommunications (standard)
DES	Data Encryption Standard
DESC	Defense Electronic Supply Center (Dayton, OH)
DFM	design for manufacturability
DFT	design for test
DFT	discrete Fourier transform
DIC	differential interference contrast (optical inspection)
DIE	Die Information Exchange (IC)
DIL	dual in-line (IC package)
DIMM	dual in-line memory module
DIN	Deutsche Industrial Norms (German standards agency)
DINOR	dual-voltage NOR
DIP	dual in-line package
DKE	Deutsche Electrontechnische Kommission im DIN und VDE (Germany)
DLC	Digital Loop Carrier
DLL	dynamic-link library
DMA	direct-memory access
DMD	digital micromirror device (display)
DMM	digital multimeter
DMOS	double-diffused metal-oxide semiconductor
DMT	discrete multitone (modulation)
DNL	differential nonlinearity (ADC performance)
DNS	Domain Name System (DNC) (Internet)
DOCSIS	Data-Over-Cable Service Interface Specification
DOD	Department of Defense (US government)
DOE	Department of Energy (US government)
DOS	disk operating system
DPAK	small power transistor package (for surface mount)
DPCCH	dedicated physical control channel
DPCH	dedicated physical channel
DPDCH	dedicated physical data channel
dpdt	double-pole, double-throw
dpi	dots per inch
DPM	digital panel meter
DPMS	display power-management signaling (VESA standard)
dpst	double-pole, single-throw
DQPSK	differential quadrature phase-shift keying
DRAM	dynamic random-access memory
DRO	dielectric-resonator oscillator
DS	downstream
DSL	digital subscriber loop
DSLAM	DSL Access Multiplexing
DSM-CC	Digital Storage Media Command and Control (group)
DSO	digital storage oscilloscope
DSP	digital signal processing
DSR	data set ready
DSSS	direct-sequence spread spectrum (communication)
DTAB	demountable tape-automated bonding (IC)
DTAD	digital telephone-answering device
DTE	data-terminal equipment
DTI	Department of Trade and Industry (British government)
DTL	diode transistor logic
DTMF	dual tone multifrequency (communications)
DUT	device under test
DVI	digital video interactive
DVM	digital voltmeter
DVP	digital video processor
DWDM	dense wavelength division multiplexing
DWT	discrete waveform transform (video compression)
E-O	electro-optical
EAN	European Article Number
EAROM	electrically alterable read-only memory
EBCDIC	extended binary-coded-decimal interchange code
ECC	error-correction code
ECL	emitter-coupled logic
ECM	electronic countermeasure (radar)
ECN	epoxy cresol nevolac (semiconductor-case resin)
ECO	engineering change order
EDA	electronic-design automation
EDAC	error detection and correction (circuit)
EDD	enhanced disk drive
EDFA	Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers
EDGE	Enhanced Data GSM Environment
EDI	electronic data interchange
EDIF	Electronic Design Interoperability/Interchange Format (schematic software)
EDM	electrical-discharge machining
EDO	extended data out (computer architecture)
EDS	extended data service
EEPROM	electrically erasable PROM
EES	Escrow Encryption Standard
EFCI	Explicit forward congestion indicator
EFF	Electronic Frontier Foundation (communications standard)
EIA	Electronic Industries Association (Washington)
EIA	Environmental Industries Association
EIAJ	Electronics Industries Association of Japan
EIF	Electronics Industries Foundation
EISA	extended industry-standard architecture (PC bus)
EL	electroluminescent (display)
ELF	extremely low frequency
ELINT	electronic intelligence
EMC	electromagnetic compatibility
EMDP	enhanced MDSL data pump
EMF	electromagnetic field
EMI	electromagnetic interference
EMP	electromagnetic pulse
EMS	expanded-memory specification (PC)
endec	encoder-decoder (LAN standard)
ENOB	effective number of bits (analog-to-digital conversion)
ENR	excess noise ratio
EPD	early packet discard
EPLD	erasable programmable-logic device
EPRI	Electric Power Research Institute
EPROM	erasable programmable read-only memory
EPS	extended Postscript (image format)
ER	explicit rate
ESD	electrostatic discharge
ESDA	electronic system design automation
ESDI	enhanced small drive/device interface
ESF	extended super-frame (communications)
ESL	equivalent series inductance
ESNUG	E-Mail Synopsys Users Group
ESR	equivalent series resistance
ESS	environmental stress screening
ESS	electronic switching system
ETC	enhanced throughput cellular (protocol)
ETDMA	extended time-division multiple access (communications)
ETF	equalized transfer function
ETS	equivalent time sampling (digital storage oscilloscope)
ETS	European Telecommunications Standard
ETSI 	European Telecommunications Standards Institute (of ISO)
EUT	equipment under test
eV	electron volt
EW	electronic warfare
ExCA	Exchangeable Card Architecture
ext	extension
F	Farad
f	frequency
f	femto
F	Fahrenheit
F-H	frequency hopping (communications)
F/V	frequency-to-voltage (converter)
F/V	frequency to voltage
FALU	floating-point arithmetic-logic unit
FAQ	frequently asked question
FAS	frame-alignment signal (communications)
FASIC	function- and algorithm-specific integrated circuit
FAST	flexible accelerated stress test
FAT	file-allocation table (digital disk format)
FC	Fibre Channel (communication)
fc	foot candle
FCA	Fibre Channel Association
FCC 	Federal Communications Commission (Washington, DC)
FCSI	Fibre Channel Systems Initiative
FDDI	fibre distributed data interface (communications)
FDMA	frequency-division multiple access (communications)
FDX	full-duplex (communications)
FEA	field-emitter array (display)
FEBE	far-end-block error (communications)
FEC	flexible etched circuits
FED	field-emission/emitter display
FEI	Federation of the Electronics Industry (UK)
FET	field-effect transistor
FFS	Flash File Standard (PCMCIA)
FFT	fast Fourier transform
FHSS 	frequency hopping spread spectrum (communications)
FIFO	first-in, first-out (memory)
FIR	finite impulse response (filter)
FISO	fast-in, slow-out (circuit)
FIT	failures in time (testing)
FIT	fault-isolation test
fL	footlambert
flops	floating-point operations per second
FM	frequency modulation
FMCW	frequency-modulated continuous wave (radar)
FMU	floating-point multiplier-divider-square-root unit
FO	fiber optic
FORTRAN	formula translation (software language)
FPCB	field-programmable circuit board
FPGA	field-programmable gate array
FPIC	field-programmable interconnect chip
FPID	field-programmable interconnect device
FPLA	field-programmable logic array
FPN	floating-point number
FPU	floating-point unit (circuit)
FQFP	fine-pitch quad flat pack
FR	full rate (communications)
FRAM	ferroelectric random-access memory
FRED	fast-recovery epitaxial diode (rectifier)
FRF	frequency-response function
FS	full scale
FSK	frequency-shift keying (communications)
FSM	finite state machine
FSS	fixed satellite service (DBS)
ft	foot/feet
ft-lb	foot pound-force
ft/minute	feet per minute
ft/sec	feet per second
ft3/sec	cubic feet/second
FTL	Flash Translation Layer (PCMCIA standard)
FTP	File Transfer Protocol (Internet)
VC	F/V converter
G	giga
g	grams
g	gravity acceleration
GaAs	gallium arsenide
GATS 	General Agreement on Trade in Services (international)
GATT 	General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (international)
Gbit	gigabit
Gbyte	gigabyte
GCA	gain-controlled amplifier
GDI	graphics-drive interface
GFC	generic flow control (ATM)
GFM	graphics file manager
GFSK	gaussian frequency-shift keying (communications)
GHz	gigahertz
GIF	graphic image file
GMSK	gaussian-filtered minimum-shift keying
GOPS	giga-operations per second
GPC 	Graphics Performance Characterization (Committee)
GPIB	general-purpose interface bus
GPL	graphical programming language
GPRS	General Packet Radio Service
GPS	Global Positioning System/Satellite
GQFP	guard-ring quad flatpack
GSM 	Groupe Speciale Mobile/Global System for Mobile
GTL	Gunning transceiver logic
GUI	graphical user interface
H	henry
HCPLD	high-capacity programmable-logic device
HD	high-definition (TV)
HDD	hard-disk drive
HDL	hardware-description language
HDLC	hardware-description language C
HDLC	High Level Data Link Control (ISO standard)
HDS	hardware-design system
HDSL	high-bit-rate digital-subscriber line
HDTMOS 	high-density-technique metal-oxide semiconductor
HDTV	high-definition television
HDX	half duplex (communications)
HEC	head-error control
HEMT	high electron-mobility transistor
HiperLAN 	high-performance local-area network (communications)
HIPOT	high potential (testing)
HIPPI	high-performance parallel interface
HLL	high-level language (software)
HLR 	home-location register (personal communications computer)
HLUT	half look-up table
hp	horsepower
HPC	hand-held PC
HR	half-rate (communications)
HSL	hue, saturation, luminescence (color graphics)
HSM	hierarchical storage management
HSOP	high-power small-outline package
HSTP	High Speed Transport Protocol
HTML	Hypertext Markup Language (WWW-Internet)
HTRB	high-temperature reverse bias (burn-in testing)
HTS	high-temperature superconductor
HTTL	high-power transistor-to-transistor logic
HV	high voltage
Hz	hertz
I/O	input/output
I2L	integrated injection logic
IA	instrument amplifier
IAB	Internet Activities Board
IAC	interapplication communication (protocol)
IC	integrated circuit
ICE	in-circuit emulator
ICR	in-circuit reconfiguration
ID	identification
ID	inside diameter
IDAPI 	integrated database application programming interface
IDC	insulation displacement connector
IDC	insulation displacement contact
IDE	intelligent drive electronics (disk)
IDE	integrated device electronics
IDEA	International Data Encryption Algorithm
IDFT	inverse discrete Fourier transform
IDL	interconnect description language
IEC	International Electrotechnical Commission (Geneva)
IEE	Institution of Electric Engineers (UK)
IEEE	Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
IES	Institute of Environmental Sciences (Mount Prospect, IL)
IETF	Internet Engineering Task Force
IF	intermediate frequency
IFAC	International Federation of Automation Control
IFFT	inverse fast Fourier transform
IGBT	insulated/isolated-gate bipolar transistor
IISP	Information Infrastructure Standards Panel (of ANSI)
IMD	intermodulation distortion
IMTS	Improved Mobile Telephone Service
in.	inch
inch 	inch
in.3	cubic inch
INL	integral non-linearity (ADC performance)
INMARSA 	International Maritime Satellite
	(mobile communications consortium)
INNS	International Neural Network Society (Berkeley, CA)
INTELSAT	International Telecommunications Satellite
	(mobile communications consortium)
IP	Internet Protocol
IPC 	Institute for (Interconnecting and) Packaging (Electronic) Circuits
	(Lincolnwood, IL)
IPMC	industrial process measurement and control
ips	inch per second
IR	insulation resistance
IR	infrared
IRD	integrated receiver-decoder (for DBS)
IrDA	Infrared Data Association
IRF	impulse response function
IRQ	interrupt request (software)
IS	Industry Standard of Architecture (PC bus)
IS	interconnect synthesis
ISA	industry standard architecture
ISA	Instrument Society of America
ISDB	integrated services digital broadcasting
ISDN	integrated services digital network (communications)
ISHM	International Society for Hybrid Microelectronics
ISM	industrial, scientific, and medical (applications/bands)
ISO	International Standards Organization
ISP	in-system programmability
IVDS	interactive video data service
IVHS	Intelligent Vehicle Highway System
IVMS	In-Vehicle Multiplexing System (standard)
J	joule
JDC	Japanese digital cellular (system)
JDS	Japanese Digital Standard (telecommunications)
JEDEC	Joint Electronic Device Engineering Council
JEIDA	Japan Electronics Industry Development Association
JESSI	Joint European Semiconductor Silicon Initiative
JFET	junction field-effect transistor
JISC	Japanese Industrial Standards Committee
JIT	just-in-time (manufacturing, staffing, etc)
JMOS	junction metal-oxide semiconductor
JPEG	Joint Photographic Experts Group (video standard)
JTACS	Japanese Total Access Communications System
JTAG	Joint Test Action Group
JTEC	Japanese Technology Evaluation Center
JTFA	joint time-frequency analysis (DSP)
K	Kelvin
k	kilo
K	k[uom]	kilohm
kbit	kilobit
kbps	kilobits per second
kbyte	kilobytes
kg	kilogram
KGD	known-good die (semiconductor)
kHz	kilohertz
km	kilometer
km/hour	kilometers per hour
KSIA	Korean Semiconductor Industry Association
KSR	keyboard send, receive
kV	kilovolt
kVA	kilovoltampere
kW	kilowatt
kWhr	kilowatthour
L	lambert
LAB	logic array block
LAN	local-area network
LAP 	large-area processing (reference multichip module IC)
laser 	light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
LC	inductance-capacitance
LC	liquid crystal (display)
LCC	leadless chip carrier
LCD	liquid crystal display
LCI	line-conducted interference (telecommunications)
LCPGA	low-cost pin-grid array
LCR	inductance-capacitance-resistance
LCR	inductance-capacitance-resistance (meter)
LDMOS	lateral double-diffused MOS
LED	light-emitting diode
LEO	low-earth-orbit
LES	LAN emulation services (communications)
LF	low frequency (30 to 300 kHz)
LGA	land grid array (IC)
LIF	low insertion force (socket)
LIFO	last-in, first-out
LIGBT	lateral insulated-gate bipolar transistor
LIM	Lotus-Intel-Microsoft (EMS spec committee)
LIMS	laboratory information management system
LIT	logic integrity test
LLC	Limited Liability Corporation
LLL	Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (Livermore, CA)
lm	lumen
lm/ft2	lumen per square foot
lm/m2	lumen per square meter
lm/W	lumen per watt
ln	logarithm, natural
LNA	low noise amplifier
LND	low noise band
LO	local oscillator
LOF	loss-of-frame (communications error)
log	logarithm
LPAC	London Parallel Applications Centre (UK)
LPF	low-pass filter
lpi	lines per inch
lpm	lines per minute
LPM 	Library of Parameterized Modules/Macros (standard)
lps	lines per second
LRM	language reference manual
LSB	least significant bit
LSI	large scale integration
LSR	least-squares regression (curve-fit)
LSSD	level-sensitive scan design (testing)
LSTTL	low-power Schottky transistor-to-transistor logic
LUT	look-up table
LVDS	low voltage differential signal
LVDT 	linear-velocity displacement transformer (transducer)
LVTTL	low-voltage transistor-transistor logic
M	mega
m	meter
Msamples/sec	megasamples per second
M-Quad	metal (body) quad (flat-pack)
m/sec	meter per second
M[uom]	megohm
m3	cubic meter
m3/sec	cubic meter per second
MAC	multiply-accumulate (computer operations)
MAC	media access control (communications protocol)
MAN	metropolitan area network (communications)
MAP	Manufacturing Automation Protocol
MAP	modular arithmetic coprocessor
MAPI	messaging application programming interface
maser 	Microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
MATE	Modular Automatic Test Equipment (standard)
Mbit	megabits
Mbps	megabits per second
Mbyte	megabytes
MCA	Micro-Channel Architecture (IBM)
MCC 	Microelectronics and Computer Technology Center (Austin, TX)
MCM	multichip-module (IC design)
MCT	MOS-controlled thyristor
MCU	microcontroller unit
MD	minidisk
MDSP	microwave digital signal processor
MESC 	Molecular Equipment Subcommittee for Communications (of SEMI)
MESFET	metal-epitaxial semiconductor field-effect transistor
MFM	modified frequency modulation
MFP	mini-flat pack (Japanese SOIC packaging)
MGCP	Media Gateway Control Protocol
MHDL	Mimic hardware description language (microwave)
MHz	megahertz
MIB	management information base
MIDI	musical instrument digital interface (multimedia)
MII	media independent interface
MIM	metal-insulator-metal (diode)
MIMD	multiple-instruction, multiple-data (path-DSP)
MIME	Multipurpose/Multimedia Internet Mail Extension
Mimic	microwave-millimeter wave integrated circuit
MIP	mixed integer program
MIPS	million instructions per second
MIS	management information system
MITI	Ministry of Trade and Industry (Japan)
MMDS	multichannel multipoint distribution service
MMI	man-machine interface
MMIC	monolithic microwave integrated circuit
MMS	modular measurement system
MMU	memory-management unit (microprocessor)
MNOS	metal-nitride oxide semiconductor
MO	magneto optical disk storage
MOCVD	metal-organic chemical vapor decompression (LED)
modem	modulator-demodulator (telecommunications)
MOPS	million operations per second
MOS	metal-oxide semiconductor
MOSFET	metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor
MOSIGT	metal-oxide semiconductor insulated-gate transistor
MOTS	military off-the-shelf (procurement)
MOV	metal-oxide varistor
MPEG	Moving Picture Experts Group (standard)
MPFM	motion picture file manager
MPLS	multi-protocol label switching
MPP	massively parallel processor
MPU	microprocessor unit
MQFP	metric quad flat-pack (packaging)
MR	magnetoresistive (disk head)
MRI	magnetic resonance imaging
MSA	metropolitan statistical area (cellular communications)
MSB	most significant bit
MSDSL	Multirate Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line
MSDU 	media-access control service data  unit (communications)
MSI	medium-scale integration
MSK	minimum shift keying (communications)
MSM	mobile station modem
MSS	mobile satellite system
MTBF	mean time between failures
MTD	moving-target detection (radar)
MTD	memory technology driver
MTFT	multilayer thick-film technology
MTI	moving-target indicator (radar)
MTP-2	Message Transfer Parts
MTTF	mean time to failure
MTTR	mean time to repair
mux	multiplexer
MVP	multimedia video processor
MW	megawatt
MXI 	Multiplatform extension for Instrumentation (bus standard)
N-AMPS	narrowband Advanced Mobile Phone Service
NAB 	National Association of Broadcasters (Washington, DC)
NACC	North American Calibration Cooperative (US-Canada)
NACME	National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering
NADTP	National Association of Desktop Publishers (Topfield, MI)
NATA	North American Telephone Association
NAV	network allocation vector (communications)
NC	numerical control (machine)
NCD	nonlinear control design
NCE 	Nomadic Computing Environment (portable PC standard)
NCMS 	National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (Ann Arbor, MI)
NCO	numerically controlled oscillator
NCSA	National Center for Supercomputing Applications
	(University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, IL)
NDR	negative differential resistance (transistor)
NEMA	National Electrical Manufacturers Association
NEMP	nuclear electromagnetic pulse
NEP	noise equivalent power
NFS	Network File System (Unix standard)
NFS	network file systems
NIC	network interface card
NII	National Information Infrastructure
NIM	network-interface module (standard)
NIM	National Instrumentation Module (standard)
NiMH	nickel-metal-hydride (battery)
NIST 	National Institute of Standards and Technology (Washington, DC)
NMOS	N-channel metal-oxide semiconductor
NMRR	normal-mode rejection ratio
NNI	network-network interface (standard)
NNI	network node interface
NOS	network operating system
NOSC	Naval Ocean Surveillance Center
NRE	nonrecurring engineering
NRF	nonvolatile RAM file-manager
nrt-VBR	non-real-time variable bit rate
NRZ	nonreturn to zero
NSB	National Science Board
NSF	National Science Foundation
NTC	negative temperature coefficient
NTDS	National TV Design Standards
NTSC	National TV Systems Committee (standard)
NTTC 	National Transportable Telecommunications Capability (COMSAT)
NTV	nonlinear thickness variation (IC wafer)
NVLAP	National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program
NVRAM	nonvolatile random-access memory
OAM	operations, administration, and maintenance
OAM&P	operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning
OC	optical carrier
OCR	optical character reader/recognition
OCXO	oven controller crystal oscillator
OEM	original equipment manufacturer
OFDM 	orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (communications)
OIDA 	Optoelectronics Industry Development Association
OLE	object linking and embedding (Microsoft software standard)
OMF	Open Model Forum (of EDA)
OMG	Object Management Group (software standard
OMI	Open Microprocessor Initiative (European)
ONU	Optical Network Units
OO	object oriented
OOF	out-of-frame (communications error)
OOP	object-oriented programming
OOT	object-oriented technology (software)
OPC	Open GL Performance Characterization (Committee)
OQPSK	offset-quadrature phase-shift keying (communications)
ORB	object request broker (CORBA)
OS	operating system (computer)
OSA	Optical Society of America
OSF	Open Software Foundation
OSI	Open Systems Interconnection (communications)
OSR	oversampling ratio (ADC)
OSRA	Office Systems Research Association (Springfield, MI)
OTA	Office of Technological Assessment (of US Congress)
OTDR	optical time-domain reflectometer
OTS	off-the-shelf
OVI	Open Verilog International (organization)
OVP	over-voltage protection (power supply)
OVSF	orthogonal variable spreading factor
p-p	peak-to-peak
P/I	packaging and interconnecting
P4	photolithographic pattern plated probe
Pa	Pascal
pA	picoampere
PA-RISC	Precision Architecture - Reduced Instruction Set
PA/R	peak-to-average ratio
PABX	private access/area branch exchange
PAC	pad array carrier
PAD	packet assembler/disassembler
PAD	programmable address decoder
PAD bus	processor address data bus
PAL	phase-alternation line; French TV spec
PALC	plasma-addressed liquid crystal (display)
PAM	pulse-amplitude modulation
PARD	periodic and random deviation
PBA	printed board assembly
PBGA	plastic ball-grid array
PBT	chemical designation like PBC, etc
PBX	private branch exchange
PC	personal computer
pC	picocoulomb
pc board (PCB)	printed-circuit board
PC-QFP	printed-circuit-based quad flat pack
PCC	Personal Communication Computer (European)
PCF	point coordination function
PDH	Personal Digital Communications
PCI	Peripheral Component Interconnect [bus]
PCI SIG	PCI Special Interest Group
PCIA	Personal Communications Industry Association
PCL	printer control language
PCM	pulse-code modulation
PCMCIA 	Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PCN	personal communications network
PCOM	private communications
PCR	plastic chip carrier
PCS	plastic clad silica
PCS	personal communications service/system
PCU	peripheral control unit
PD	pulsed doppler (radar)
PDA	personal digital assistant (portable computing)
PdAg	palladium silver
PDC	personal digital cellular (telecommunications system)
PDEF	physical design exchange format
PDH	plesiochronous-digital hierarchy (communications network)
PDI	perspective dark-field imaging (semiconductor wafer inspection)
PDIAL	public-access dial-up (Internet provider)
PDIF	P-CAD data interchange format
PDIP	plastic dual-in-line package
PDM	product data management
PDP	plasma display panel
PDT	prototype debug tool (Tektronix)
PDU	protocol data unit
PEBB	power electronics building block
PECC	partially error-controlled connections
PECL	positive/pseudo emitter-coupled logic
PECVD	plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition
PEEL	Programmable Electrically Erasable Logic
PEM	privacy enhanced mail (Internet)
PEP	Programmable Electronics Performance (Corp standard)
pF	picofarad
PF	power factor
PFC	power-factor correction (power supply)
PFM	pulse frequency modulation (battery charging)
PGA	pin-grid array
PGA	programmable gain amplifier
PGD	"pretty good die" (IC production)
PGP	"pretty good privacy" (Internet encryption algorithm)
PHEMT 	pseudomorphic high electronic mobility technology (FET process)
PHP	Personal Handyphone (Japanese standard)
PHP	power hybrid package
PHY	physical layer
PIC	parallel intereference cancellation
PICMG	PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group
PID	proportional-integral differential control loops
PIN	p-n junction with isolation region
PIND	particle impact noise detection
PIP	procedural interface protocol
PIV	peak inverse voltage
pixel	picture element
pJ	picojoule
PKI	Public Key Infrastructure
PLA	Programmable Logic Array; Signetics trademark
PLACE	PEEL Architectural Compiler/Editor
PLCC	plastic leaded chip carrier
PLCP	physical layer convergence procedure
PLD	programmable logic device
PLDC	polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (display)
PLI	Programming Language Interface (OVI)
PLL	phase-locked loop
PLS	programmable logic sequencer
PM	phase modulation
PMA	post-metallization anneal
PMC	PCI Mezzanine Card (standard)
PMCM	plastic multichip module
PMD	physical media dependent
PMOS	p-type metal-oxide semiconductor
PMP	post-metal programming
PMT	photo-multiplier tube
PMU	parametric measurement unit
PN	processor node
PNN	probabilistic neural network
pnp	p-type n-type p-type
PnP	Plug and Play (ISA standard)
POP	point of presence (Internet)
POP	Post Office Protocol (Internet)
PoS	packet-over-SONET
POSIX	portable operating system interface - Unix
POST	power-on self tests
POT	plain-old telephony
POTS	plain-old telephone service (system?)
PPGA	plastic pin grid array
PPI	plan position indicator (radar)
ppm	part(s) per million
PPP	Point-to-Point Protocol (Internet)
pps	pulses per second
PPT	precision pad technology
PQFP	plastic quad flat pack (IC)
PRACH	physical random access channel
PRBA	Portable Rechargeable Battery Association
PRBS	pseudorandom bit stream
PREP	PowerPC reference platform
PRF	pulse repetition frequency (radar)
PRML	partial-response maximum-likelihood (disk storage)
PRN	pseudo-random noise
PRO	Precision RISC Organization
PRS	pattern recognition system
PSD	power spectral density
psec	picosecond
PSG	phospho-silicate glass
psi	pound(s) per square inch
psia	pound(s) per square inch absolute
psig	pound(s) per square inch gauge
PSK	phase-shift keying
PSOP	power small outline package
PSP	programmable signal processor
PSPDN	packet switched public data network
PSRAM	pseudo-static RAM
PSRR	power-supply rejection ratio
PSTN	Public Switched Telephone Network
PtAu	platinum gold
PTC	positive temperature coefficient
PTE	path terminating equipment
PTF	polymer-thick-film
PTO	Patent and Trademark Office (US Government)
pV	picovolt
PVC	polyvinyl-chloride
PVD	peak voltage detect/physical vapor deposition
pW	picowatt
PWM	pulse-width modulation
Q	quality factor (of a resonant circuit)
QAM	quadrature amplitude modulation
QAS	Quick Arbitrate and Select
QC	quality control
QCIF	quarter-common intermediate format
QE	quantum efficiency (photomultiplier)
QFB	quad flat butt-leaded package
QFP	quad flat pack
QIC	quarter-inch cartridge (storage)
QML	qualified manufacturers list
QoS	quality of service (communications)
QPL	qualified part/product list (procurement)
QPL	Qualified Products List
QPM	quasi-phase-matched
QPSK	quadrature phase-shift keying (communications)
QSM	queued serial module
QSOP	quarter-size outline package
QTAG	Quality Test Action Group (communications)
QTCP	quad tape carrier package
QUIP	quad in-line package
RACH	random access channel
rad	radian
RADSL	rate adaptive digital subscriber line
RAID	redundant array of inexpensive disks
RAM	random access memory
RAMDAC 	random access memory, digital-to-analog converter (combination)
RAS	row address strobe
RAS	remote access service (network)
RASSP 	Rapid Prototyping of Application Specific Signal Processors (ARPA project)
RAVE	real-time audio/visual environment
RBOC	regional Bell operating company
RC	resistance-capacitance
RC-4	Rivest's Cipher
RCC	rectangular chip carrier
RCM	release complete message
RDBMS	Relational Data Base Management System
READ	relative element address designate
RED 	random early discard
REL	release message
RF	radio frequency
RFC	request for comment (communications)
RFC	radio frequency choke
RFI	radio-frequency interference
RFIC	radio frequency integrated circuit
RFID	radio frequency identification
RFP	request for proposal
RGB	red, green, blue
RHET	resonant-tunneling hot-electron transistor
RHP	reconfigurable hardware products
RIE	reactive ion etching
RIO	random early discard In/Out of Profile
RIP	raster image processor (DTP)
RISC	reduced-instruction-set computer
RISR	remote interrupt service routine
RIU	ring interface unit
RLC	resistance-inductance-capacitance
RLE	run-length encoding (data compression)
RLL	run length limited (eg: 2,7 RLL)
RLN	remote LAN node
RLQ	rate-limiting queues
RM	resource management
RMI	resource-manager interface
RMII	Reduced Media Independent Interface
RMON	Remote Network Monitoring
rms	root-mean-square
RMW	read-modify-write (software)
RO	reverse osmosis
ROM	read-only memory
ROTS	rugged off-the-shelf
ROW	rest of the world
RP	rapid prototyping
RP	reinforced plastic
RPC	remote procedural call (network)
RPC	remote-procedure calls
rpm	revolutions per minute
rps	revolutions per second
RR	round-robin
RS	recommended standard
RSA	Rivest, Shamir and Adelman (encryption)
RSSI	received signal strength indicator
rt-VBR	real-time variable bit rate
RTD	resistance temperature detector
RTEID	Real-Time Executive Interface Definition (Motorola)
RTI	return from interrupt
RTL	resistor transfer logic
RTL	register transfer level/language
RTM	resin transfer molding
RTO	return to output
RTOS	real-time operating system
RTP	rapid thermal processing
RTS	request-to-send
RTV	room-temperature-vulcanized (silicone)
RTV	real-time video
RW	read/write
SAM	switched access with multiplexer
S-DAB	satellite digital audio broadcasting
S/DMS	SONET/digital multiplex switch
S/H	sample and hold
SAM	serial access memory
sample/sec	samples per second
SAN	Storage Area Network
SAPI	service access point identifier
SAR	synthetic aperture radar
SAR	segmentation and reassembly (communications)
SAS	silicon asymmetrical switch
SASI	Shugart Associates System Interface
SAW	surface acoustic wave
SBC	single-board computer
SBDIP	side-brazed dual in-line package
SBIC	shared bus interface controller
SBIR	Small Business Innovation Research
SBM	shared buffer memory (Alcatel)
SBS	silicon bilateral switch
SC	shared cored (Ericsson)
SC/H 	subcarrier-to-horizontal (phase shift) phase of color burst
	extended to the leading edge of the horizontal sync pulse
SCAM	SCSI configured automatically (ANSI protocol)
SCC	serial communications controller
SCC	square chip carrier
SCC	stackable ceramic carrier
SCCM	standard cubic centimeters/per minute
SCE	storage-control element
SCFL	source-coupled FET logic
SCH	synchronization channel
SCI	scalable coherent interface
SCI-PHY	Saturn-Compliant Interface - Physical (device protocol)
SCIM	single-chip integration module
SCM	single-chip module
SCOT	sealed chips on tape
SCPI	Standards Committee for Programmable instruments
SCR	silicon-controlled rectifier
SCS	silicon-controlled switch
SCSI	Small Computer System Interface
SCTE	Society of Cable TV Engineers
SCXI	signal conditioning extension for instrumentation
SDBGA	super dissipation ball grid array
SDCM	serial data converter modules
SDF	standard delay format
SDF	Standard Delay File (OVI)
SDH	synchronous digital hierarchy
SDIP	shrink dual-in-line package
SDK	system development kit
SDLC	software description language C
SDLC	synchronous data-link control
SDLVA	successive-detection log video amplifier (microwave)
SDOF	single degree-of-freedom
SDRAM	synchronous DRAM
SDSC	Standards and Data Services Committee
SE	Switch Element
SEAL	simple and efficient AAL
sec	secant
sec	second
SECAM	Systeme Electronique Couleur Avec Memoire (European video standard)
SECS	Semiconductor Equipment and Material International's Equipment
	Communications Standard
SEI	secondary electron imaging (surface inspection)
SEL	surface-emitting lasers
SELV	safety extra-low voltage
SEM-E	standard electronic module e-type (avionics)
SEMI	Semiconductor Equipment and Material International
	(Association, Mountain View, CA)
SEP	signaling endpoint
SERDES	serializer/deserializer
SEU	single-event upset
SFBI	shared frame-buffer interface
SFC	Shannon-Farro coding (data compression)
SFDR	spurious free dynamic range
SFFPCI	Small Form-Factor Personal Computer Interface(standard)
SFP	short-fault protection
SFROM	smart flash ROM
SGA	solder grid array
SGMP	simple gateway monitoring protocol
SHA	sample-and-hold amplifier (ADC)
SHF	super high frequency
SHG	second harmonic generation
SHT	suppressed high-level differential transfer (circuit)
Si	silicon
SIA	Semiconductor Industry Association (Washington DC
SIC	Standard Industrial Classification (numbering code)
SiC	silicon carbide
SICL	standard instrument control library
SID	Society for Information Display (PCI)
SIG	Special Interest Group
SIM	single in-line module
SIM	Subscriber Identity Module
SIMD	single-instruction, multiple-data (array)
SIMM	single in-line memory module
SiN	silicon nitride
sin	sine
SINAD	signal-to-noise-and-distortion (ratio)
SIO	serial I/O
SiO	silicon oxide
SIP	Session Initialization Protocol
SIP	single in-line package
SIP	SMDS interface protocol
SIR	signal-to-interference ratio
SIR	surface insulation resistance
SIU	system interface unit
SIU	system integration unit
SL	stripline
SLAM	scanning laser acoustic microscope
SLC	single-layer ceramic
SLC	surface laminar circuit
SLD	source level debugger
SLIC	subscriber-line interface circuit (communications)
Slicc	slightly larger than IC carrier (packaging)
SLIP	Serial-Line Internet Protocol
SLT	solid logic technology
SMA	Semiconductor Manufacturers Association (UK)
SMA	surface-mounted assembly
SMART	stress-marginality and accelerated-reliability testing
SMART	Standard Module Avionics Repair and Test(software)
SMC	S-Bus mezzanine card
SMC	surface-mount components
SMD	Storage Module Drive
SMD	surface-mount device
SMDS	switched multimegabit data services (Europe)
SME	small-to-medium enterprises
SMEMA	Surface Mount Equipment Manufacturers Association
SMI	small- and medium-sized industries
SMI	(power) system management interrupts
SMII	Serial Media Independent Interface
SMM	(power) system management mode
SMOBC	solder mask over bare copper
SMP	symmetric multiprocessing
SMPGA	surface-mount pin grid array
SMPS	switch-mode power supply
SMPTE	Society of Motion Picture and TV Engineers
SMRT	surface-mount and reflow technology
SMT	surface-mount technology
SMTA	Surface-Mount Technology Association
SMU	source-measure unit
SMUG	Spokane Microcomputer Users Group
SMX-6000	a Fujitsu switch model
SNA	systems network architecture (IBM)
SNet	SONET Network (Northern Telecom)
SNMP	simple network management protocol
SNR	signal-to-noise ratio
SO	small outline
SOB	small outline butt-leaded package
SOG	spin-on glass
SOHO	small office, home office
SOI	silicon-on-insulator (IC)
SOIC	small-outline IC
SOJ	SOIC with J-leads
SOLA	short, open, load and air-capacitor
SONET	synchronous optical network
SOP	small outline power (package)
SORF	small outline radio frequency (package)
SOS	silicon on sapphire
SOSCARD	Secure Operating System Card
SOT	small-outline transistor
SOVA	soft-output Viterbi algorithms
SP	span processor
SP	switch port (Ericsson)
SPARC	scalable processor architecture
Sparc 	scalable processor architecture
SPDIP	shrink plastic dual in-line package
spdt	single-pole, double-throw
SPE	synchronous payload envelope
SPI	serial peripheral interface
SPI	synchronous pixel interface
Spice	Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit
SPIE	The International Society for Optical Engineering
SPL	sound pressure level
SPM	scanning probe microscope
SPS	samples per second
spst	single-pole, single-throw
SQC	statistical quality control
SQE	signal-quality error
SQFP	shrink quad flat pack
SQL	search and query language
SQPSK 	staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (communications)
SR	set/reset (flip-flop)
SRAM	static RAM
SRC  	Semiconductor Research Corporation (industry funded)
SRCS	SilkRoad Refractive Synchronization Communication
SRL	shift register latch
SS	spread spectrum (communications)
SS7	Signalling System 7
SSA	serial storage architecture
SSB	single sideband
SSD	solid-state disk
SSET	switching system exchange termination
SSH	simultaneous sample and hold (data acquisition)
SSI	small-scale integration
SSL	Secure Sockets Layer
SSMM	solid-state mass memory
SSOP	shrink small outline package
SSR	solid-state relay
SST 	Science, Space, and Technology (US House of Representatives committee)
SST	solid state technology
SST	simultaneous self-test (logic mode)
SST	supersonic transport (aircraft)
STB	set-top box
STL	Schottky transistor logic
STM	scanning tunneling microscope
STM	synchronous transfer mode
STM	synchronous transport module
STN 	The Scientific and Technical Information Network (Internet)
STRIFE	stress and life (testing)
STS	synchronous transport signal
STT	set-top terminal
STTL	Schottky transistor-transistor logic (TTL)
SUI	speech user interface (multimedia)
SUS	silicon unilateral switch
SVD	simultaneous voice and data
SVGA	super video graphics adapter
SVHS	super VHS (video format)
SVP	surge voltage protector
SWL	sound (power) level
SWR	standing-wave ratio
SYSOP	system operator (Internet)
T-BGA	tape ball grid array
T/H	track and hold
T/R	transmit and receive
TAB	tape automated bonding
TAC	Technical Activity Committee
TACS 	Total Access Communication System (British cellular)
tan	tangent
TAP	test access part
TAPI	telephone application program interface
TAT	transatlantic telephone (cable)
TAV	transverse acoustic-wave voltage
Tbit	terabit
Tbit/sec	terabits per second
TC	temperature coefficient
TCAP	transaction capabilities application part
TCC	temperature coefficient of capacitance
TCE	temperature coefficient of expansion
TCE	Technical Computing Environment
TCIF	Telecommunications Industry Forum
TCM	thermal conduction module
TCM	trellis-coded modulation
TCO	total cost of ownership
TCP	tape carrier package
TCP/IP	transmission control protocol/Internet protocol
TCR	tape carrier ring
TCR	temperature coefficient of resistance
TCXO	temperature compensated crystal oscillators
TDD	time-division duplex
TDDS	time-division duplex system (communications)
TDM	time-division multiplex (communications)
TDMA	time-division multiple access (communications)
TDR	time domain reflectometer
TE	transverse electric
TEC	thermal electrical cooler
TEGFET	2-D electron-gas field effect transistor
TEM	transverse electromagnetic
TF	transfer function
TFI	transport format indicator
TFT	thin-film transistor
TFT-LCD	thin-film transistor liquid crystal display
THB	temperature humidity bias
THD	total harmonic distortion
THHN	Thermoplastic high heat-resistant coated nylon
3D	three-dimensional
TIA	Telecommunications Industry Association (Washington)
TIA	time-interval analyzer
TIC	tape-automated bond in cap
TIFF	tagged image format file (computer graphics)
TIGA	Texas Instruments' Graphics Architecture
TiN	titanium nitride
TIR	total indicated reading
TISSS 	Tester Independent Software Support System (DOD program)
TL1	Transaction Language 1
TLB	translation look-aside buffer
TLC	thin-layer chromatography
TLIM	transmission-line model
TLM	transmission line matrix
TLM	triple-layer metal
TM	traffic management
TMC	transfer mode converter/switch port termination
TMN	Traffic Management Network
TMRC	Technology Marketing and Research Council
TMSL	test and measurement systems language
Tn	digital carrier, type n
TN	twister nematic (LC display)
TO	transistor outline package
TOP	thin outline package
TPC	Transaction Processing Council (standard)
TPC	transmit power control
tpi	tracks per inch
TPQFP	test-pad quad flat pack
TPU	time processor unit
TQC	total quality control
TQFP	tape quad flat pack
TQFP	thin quad flatpack
TQM	total quality management
Tr	transition time
TRAM	transputer random access memory (module)
triac	triac bidirectional rectifier (two SCRs used in antiparallel)
TRP	Technology-Reinvestment Program
TSB	Telecommunications Standardization Bureau
TSOP	thin small outline package
TSP	temperature-sensitive parameter
TSSOP	thin scaled small outline package
TSSOP	thin shrink small-outline package
TST	time-space-time
TTC	Telecommunications Technology Committee (Japan)
TTC	time-to-collection (data acquisition)
TTL	transistor-transistor logic
TTY	teletypewriter
TUV	Technische Uberwachungs-Verein (German test lab)
TVI	TV interface
TVRO	television receive-only (DBS)
TVS	transient voltage suppressor
2D	two-dimensional
TXCO	temperature compensated oscillator
uA	microampere
UART 	universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter (communications)
UBR	unspecified bit rate
UBS	uninterruptible battery system
uC	microcomputer
uC	microcontroller
UCOM	Users' Committee of Foreign Semiconductors
UDI	Universal Digital Interface
UDP	User Datagram Protocol (Internet)
UDPs	user-defined primitives
uF	microfarad
ug	microgram
uH	microhenry
UHF	ultrahigh frequency
UHV	ultrahigh vacuum
UIL 	User Interface Language (Open Software Foundation)
UJT	unijunction transistor
UL	Underwriters' Laboratory
ULSI	ultra large-scale integration
um	micron
UMTS	Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
UN	United Nations
UNEP	United Nations Environment Program
UNI	User Network Interface (standard)
uP	microprocessor
UPnP	Universal Plug and Play (
UPC	universal product code
UPS	uninterruptible power source
UPSR	unifine pitch
US	Upstream
USART	transmitter
USAT	ultrasmall aperture terminal
USDC	US Display Consortium
USE/DA	Users Society for Electronic Design Automation
usec	microsecond
USTA	US Telephone Association
UTC	Universal Coordinated Time
UTOPIA	Universal Test and Operations Physical Interface for Asynchronous Transfer Mode
UTQFP	ultrathin quad flat pack
UTRA	UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
UTSOP	ultrathin small-outline package
UUT	unit under test
uV	microvolt
UV	ultraviolet
UV-PROM	ultraviolet-erasable PROM
UVLO	undervoltage lockout (thresholds)
uW	microwatt
V	volt
V ac	volts alternating current
V dc	volts direct current
V-MOS	v-groove MOS
V/F	voltage to frequency
VA	volt-ampere
VAFC	VESA Advanced Feature Connection
VAR	value-added reseller
VAR	volt-ampere, reactive
VB	visual Basic (multimedia software)
VBI	vertical blanking interval (TV)
VBR	variable bit rate (networking) (nrt - non-real-time; rt - real-time)
VBX	Visual Basic extension
VC	virtual channel
VCA	voltage-controlled amplifier
VCD	variable center distance
VCI	virtual channel indicator/identifier (network)
VCIF	VESA Display Information Format
VCO	voltage-controlled oscillator
VCPU	video compression processor unit
VCR	videocassette recorder
VCSEL	vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser
VCXO	voltage-controlled crystal oscillator
VDE	visual development environment
VDE	video-decompression engine
VDSL	very high-rate digital subscriber line (40 Mbps downstream)
VESA	Video Electronics Standards Association
VF	vacuum fluorescent (display)
VF	voice frequency (300 to 3400 Hz)
VFC	voltage-to-frequency converter
VFD	vacuum fluorescent display
VFEA	VMEbus Futurebus + Extended Architecture
VFO	variable-frequency oscillator
VGA	video graphics array
VGA	video graphic accelerator (circuit)
VGA	Video Graphics Adapter
VHADSL	very high-bit-rate asymmetric digital subscriber line
VHDL	very high density logic
VHDL	VHSIC Hardware Description Language
VHDSL	very-high-bit rate digital subscriber line
VHF	very high-frequency (30 kHz to 300 MHz)
VHSIC	very high-speed IC
VIL	vertical in-line
VISA	virtual instrument software architecture
VISA	VXI System Alliance (standard)
VITA	VMEbus International Trade Association
Vital	VHDL Initiative Toward ASIC Libraries (organization)
VLAN	Virtual local area network
VL Bus	VESA local bus
VLC/VLD	variable length coding, variable length decoding
VLF	very low frequency (below 30 kHz)
VLIW	very long instruction word (computer architecture)
VLS	virtual library system
VLSI	very-large-scale integration
VMC	VESA Media Channel (bus)
VME	virtual machine environment
VMEbus	versatile modular E-bus (from former VERSAbus-E)
VMTP 	Versatile Message Transaction Protocol (communications)
VNA	vector network analyzer
VOD	video-on-demand
VoIP	voice over Internet Protocol
VOST	VESA Open Set Top (group)
VOX	voice-operated threshold (communications)
VP	virtual path
VP	video processor
VPAK	vertical package
VPCI	virtual path connection identifier
VPD	vapor phase dissolution
VPE	vapor phase epitaxy
VPEC	Virginia Power Electronics Center (Blacksburg, VA)
VPI	virtual path indicator/identifier (network)
VPM	vertical package module
VPP	VXI Plug-and-Play (systems alliance)
VPS	vapor phase soldering
VQ	vector quantization
VQFP	very fine pitch quad flat pack
VR	virtual reality
VRAM	video random-access memory
VRD	virtual retina display
VRM	voice recognition module
VROOMM	Virtual Runtime Object-Oriented Memory Manager
versus 	versus
vs	versus
VSAT	very small aperature terminal (satellite transceiver with 30-40cm disk)
VSB	VME Subsystem bus
VSELP	vector-sum excited linear-predictive (speech coding)
VSIM	virtual surface image memory
VSO	very small-outline
VSOP	very small outline package (Japanese MFP)
VSS	VHDL system simulator
VSWR	voltage standing-wave ratio (RF and microwave)
VTCO	voltage-temperature cutoff (battery charging)
VTVM	vacuum tube Voltmeter
VU	volume unit (meter)
VXCO	voltage-controlled crystal oscillator
VXIbus	VMEbus extension for instrumentation
W	watt
WAIS	wide area information server (Internet)
WAN	wide area network
WAP	wireless application protocol
WB	wire bonded
WDM	wavelength division multiplexing
WFQ	weighted fair queuing
Whr	watthour
WLAN	wireless local area network
WLL	wireless local loop
WML	wireless markup language
WORM	write once, read many (optical desk)
WPKI	wireless PKI (public key infrastructure)
wpm	words per minute
WRAM	window RAM
WRED	weighted random early discard
WRR	weighted round robin
WSI	wafer scale integration
WTLS	wireless transport layer security
WUT	wafer under test
WWW	World Wide Web of the Internet
WYSIWYG	what you see is what you get
X-MOS	high-speed metal-oxide semiconductor
XA	extended architecture (CD-ROM)
XDR	external data representation
xDSL	Digital Subscriber Line
XGA	extended graphics adapter
XIP	execute-in-place
XIWT	Cross-Industry Working Team (information transmission)
XPG	X/Open Portability Guide (standard group)
XRF	x-ray fluorescence (spectroscopy)
XTP	Express Transfer Protocol (communications)
YAG	ytrrium-aluminum garnet
YIG	yttrium iron garnet (microwave device material)
YTD	year to date
YUV	luminance/chrominance
ZCS	zero-current switching
ZIF	zero insertion force
ZIP	zigzag-in-line package
ZnO	zinc oxide
ZVS	zero-voltage switching